Compliance with a diet is a prerequisite for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. By following the basic principles of a healthy diet, you can reduce the risk of complications in type 1 diabetes and help the body make insulin in type 2 disease. But the main purpose of the diet is to maintain normal blood sugar levels. .
Basic principles of nutrition in diabetes mellitus
With diabetes mellitus, the diet should be balanced, containing proteins, fats and carbohydrates. The main goal of the diet is to normalize the metabolism. This not only lowers blood sugar levels, but also helps you lose weight, which is especially important for obese people. When compiling a menu for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, the following rules should be taken into account:
- Meals should be split up, up to 5-6 times a day, but in small portions. Eat 3 full meals and 2-3 light snacks every day. To prevent a sharp drop in blood sugar levels, always carry an apple or cookie with you. Breakfast should be within one hour of waking up and the last meal should be 3-4 hours before bedtime.
- Eat according to a schedule, at certain times and at regular intervals. This makes it easier to calculate the insulin dose and ensures a uniform rise in blood sugar without sudden jumps.
- For people with diabetes, fiber and dietary fiber are important.They are found in fresh vegetables. Their use does not lead to a sharp increase in blood sugar levels, helps to lose weight and normalizes the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
- When buying groceries, give preference to lean meat.The diet should not contain more than 30% fat. Most of this volume is made up of vegetable fats.
- Foods containing sugar are completely excluded from the diet. They cause a sharp rise in blood sugar, so they are forbidden for diabetics.
In general, the diet for diabetes does not differ from proper nutrition (PP). The principles of PP are taken as a basis, the goals of which are to speed up metabolism, reduce weight and improve the general condition of the body.
When forming a diet, it is necessary to take into account existing concomitant diseases. For example, with kidney disease, salt is excluded or limited, with high acidity gastritis - fermented milk products.
Diet for type 1 diabetes
In insulin-dependent type 1 diabetes mellitus, the main emphasis is on replacement therapy. The patient receives daily injections of insulin, as it is not produced by the pancreas against the background of beta cell death. Modern insulin therapy allows a diabetic patient to independently adjust their diet, relying on the feeling of hunger and satiety. Many people mistakenly believe that injected insulin allows you to consume food in any form and quantity. Diabetes sufferers don't even limit themselves to sweet and fatty foods, eating like a healthy person. However, such an attitude towards one's body is unacceptable. The injected drug, in fact, makes up for the lack of insulin necessary to regulate the metabolism of carbohydrates. But if a specialized diet is not followed, the drug may not cope with its tasks. For example, sweets cause blood sugar to spike. And if a small dose of insulin is injected, hyperglycemic coma or acute liver failure can occur. For people with type 1 diabetes, diet is essential for life and health. It is drawn up together with a doctor, based on the latest test results, blood sugar levels, age and the presence of chronic diseases.
Bread unit of products
In type 1 diabetes, a low-carbohydrate diet is formulated that involves counting bread units (BU). One XE equals 10-12 grams of carbohydrates. Depending on the value obtained, the insulin dose is calculated. For each unit of bread, 1 unit of insulin is injected. The dosage is adjusted according to the time of day:
- morning - 1, 5-2 units;
- day - 1-1, 5 U;
- evening - 0. 8-1 U
You can calculate the number of bread units yourself. But for this it is necessary to know how many carbohydrates are contained in 100 grams. Product. For example, 100gr. ricotta contains 24 gr. carbohydrates. In a pack of 200 gr. - 48gr. carbohydrates. It turns out that if in 1 XE 12 gr. carbohydrates, then in a package of 4 XE ricotta. One unit of bread raises blood sugar by 2. 77 mmol / L. And to process 1 XE, 1, 4 U of insulin is needed. Taking into account these indicators, the dosage of the injected drug is calculated.
Patients with diabetes have to comply with the daily norm of XE - it is equal to 18-24. For one meal, you cannot eat more than 7 XE.
To make it easier to calculate the bread units when building a low-carb diet, you can use a special table. Contains basic foods.
|Product||Quantity in 1 XE|
|Rye and white bread, raw buns||20 gr.|
|Milk, natural yogurt, kefir, yogurt||250ml.|
|Curd mass with sugar||100 grams|
|Ice cream||65 gr.|
|Gnocchi (semi-finished product)||50 gr.|
|All raw cereals||1 tablespoon|
|Boiled potatoes||70 gr.|
|Mashed potatoes with milk||2 tbsp|
|Peeled banana||60 gr.|
|Dried fruit||20 gr.|
|Apple juice||100 ml|
Glycemic index of foods
Another indicator that must be considered when building a low-carb diet is the glycemic index of foods (GI). It is the rate at which blood sugar levels rise after a meal. Diabetics must choose low glycemic index foods. They provide an even flow of glucose into the bloodstream and prevent sudden spikes in blood sugar levels throughout the day. The glycemic index is classified into 3 types:
- low - up to 50 units;
- medium - from 50 to 69 units;
- high - over 70 units.
For type 1 diabetes, choose foods with a low to medium glycemic index. The maximum GI value must not exceed 72 units.
The table provides a list of permitted foods and related geographical indications.
|type GI||Product||Glycemic index in units|
|Boiled baked potatoes||65|
Foods with a high glycemic index are strictly prohibited. These include all sweets, sausages, muffins, fried foods. They dramatically increase blood sugar levels and contribute to weight gain, which is unacceptable in diabetes.
Diet for type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus occurs most often against the background of obesity. The main feature of the menu is the choice of products with a low GI and a small amount of XE. In type 2 non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, diet is of paramount importance. By adhering to the basic principles of a healthy diet, you can prevent blood sugar spikes and prevent the development of complications. The type 2 diabetes diet has three functions:
- Normalization of metabolism, acceleration of metabolism for weight loss.
- Maintenance of normal glucose levels.
- Restoration of damaged tissues of the pancreas.
Particular attention is paid to concomitant diseases. For example, hypertension requires the use of foods that thin the blood. To lower blood sugar and normalize weight, a person with diabetes needs to count calories.
In non-insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus, the same rules as the diet developed for patients with type 1 diabetes should be followed.
In the second type of diabetes mellitus, if the patient is overweight, a low-carbohydrate diet number 8 is indicated. It involves a strict limitation of the amount of carbohydrates, animal fats and salt consumed. Reduce hunger by using non-starchy vegetables, unsweetened fruit, and regular drinking water.
Diet "Table number 9" for diabetes
Not all types of diets are allowed for people with diabetes. Nutrition should promote weight loss in type 2 and prevent the development of ketoacidosis in type 1. Mono diets, keto diets and other types of foods, the principle of which is the rejection of fats, proteins or carbohydrates, are prohibited. With diabetes mellitus, the diet "Table number 9" is shown. It is about avoiding foods with a high glycemic index and a high content of bread units. Eating according to this system cannot be called monotonous, but an important condition is a change in eating habits. We will have to give up fast food, fried and fatty foods, sweets.
Table 9 of the low carbohydrate diet is designed for type 1 diabetes. It does not have a therapeutic effect, but it does help maintain normal glucose levels.
The table contains lists of allowed and prohibited products.
|Mushrooms||Salted fatty fish|
|Meat||Fatty meats (goose, duck, pork, lamb)|
|Brown and red rice||Alcohol|
|Lean dairy products and fermented dairy products||Spicy spices|
An approximate menu for the day looks like this:
- Breakfast is millet porridge with milk.
- Second breakfast - natural yogurt, apple.
- Lunch: Rabbit soup with zucchini and buckwheat, coleslaw and cucumber salad, dressed with vegetable oil.
- Afternoon snack - cottage cheese casserole with berries.
- Dinner: a piece of steamed salmon, a salad of boiled vegetables.
- Late dinner - kefir.
A low carbohydrate diet for diabetes does not starve you. The diet will be balanced, satisfying and nutritious.
Many people believe that a low carb diet is highly restrictive and makes you eat lean and monotonous. In fact, there are a huge number of recipes for high-tasting and safe dishes for diabetics. The following products will help to diversify the usual menu:
- Berries.The diabetes diet includes consuming berries instead of sugar-containing foods. Add berries to cottage cheese, cook smoothies and mousses with them, add to cheesecake and casseroles to sweeten the dish. This natural product has a low glycemic index and also helps prevent the development of heart and vascular diseases and saturates the body with important trace elements.
- Olive oil.Vegetable fats, rich in Omega-3, must be present in the diet of a diabetic. And the best option is olive oil. It participates in the processes of lipid metabolism, helps prevent retinopathy and slows down aging. Olive oil is good for overweight and improves mood.
- Cinnamon.It has anti-inflammatory effects, lowers blood sugar and improves the taste of food. Add cinnamon to diet pancakes, cheesecakes, and other desserts.
- Cabbage.Green vegetables must be present in a diabetic's diet. And the leader among them is the cabbage. A large amount of fiber in the composition slows the increase in blood sugar levels and reduces it to physiological norms. In addition, cabbage is rich in vitamins necessary to strengthen the immune system.
- Salmon.Fish should be present in a diabetic's diet. Salmon occupies a leading position in terms of the number of useful properties. This fish contains omega-3 fatty acids, which prevent the development of cardiovascular diseases.
Here is an example of a weekly menu for type 1 diabetes:
An approximate menu for a week with type 2 diabetes looks like this:
fried eggs with cheese
If you follow this example, your low carb diet will help keep your glucose levels in check and won't make you uncomfortable with your diet.
A different menu is prepared every day. Eat a variety of foods to make your food enjoyable.
A low carbohydrate diet for diabetes mellitus allows the use of low glycemic index and XE foods. These include:
- wholemeal flour bread;
- Rye bread;
- buckwheat and oatmeal;
- red and brown rice;
- lean meats - rabbit, turkey, beef, veal;
- low-fat varieties of fish: cod, hake, zander, salmon, salmon, pike, etc. ;
- seafood - squid, shrimp, mussels, shrimp;
- high quality flour dough;
- legumes - beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas;
- dairy products - kefir, fermented cooked milk, natural yogurt, yogurt, low-fat milk;
- vegetables - cabbage, lettuce, radishes, tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, eggplant, pumpkin;
- dried fruit;
- tea, coffee, compotes, juices, jelly (without sugar);
- soy sauce;
- low-fat cheese;
- sesame, sunflower and pumpkin seeds;
- vegetable oil.
Some foods tend to lower blood sugar levels. They should not be used in conjunction with drugs that regulate glucose in the body. These include:
- grapefruit in pure form and in juice;
- Jerusalem artichoke;
- cabbage juice;
- garlic, parsley, celery;
- St. John's wort, dandelion, nettle.
Make a diet based on permitted foods.
Below is a list of prohibited foods that should not be consumed on a diabetes diet. Be sure to take this into account when drafting your menu. The following foods are completely excluded from the diet:
- sugars and foods containing sugar;
- White bread;
- spicy, pickled, smoked and very salty foods;
- fatty meats - pork, lamb, chicken skin, lard;
- potatoes (allowed no more than 2 times a week);
- store mayonnaise, ketchup, mustard;
- carbohydrate-rich cereals - semolina, millet, rice;
- fruit juices;
- sweet drinks;
- fructose products.
What should not be used for diabetes mellitus depends on the patient's condition. In the presence of severe obesity, sweet fruits are contraindicated: bananas, grapes, melon. The diet for diabetes mellitus is compiled by the attending physician, taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient's health.
Diabetes diet for pregnant women
During pregnancy, a woman should follow general dietary guidelines for diabetics. You can adjust the insulin dosage taking into account the glucose values. For gestational diabetes that develops during pregnancy, it is important to adjust the diet so that the blood sugar does not rise. At the same time, doctors allow a less strict and low-carbohydrate diet, which allows the use of potatoes and sweet fruits. But nutrition should be paired with regular blood glucose measurements. If glucose rises during gestational diabetes mellitus, regardless of adherence to a low-carbohydrate diet, insulin injections are also prescribed.
Diet for diabetes in children
Treatment of diabetes mellitus in children is carried out under the supervision of an endocrinologist. Insulin injections are prescribed, which must be administered strictly according to the schedule, are related to the hours of feeding. An error of 10-15 minutes is allowed. Meals for children with diabetes mellitus are organized taking into account the following rules:
- In the first year of life, the main food is breast milk. It is important to maintain breastfeeding for up to 1. 5-2 years.
- Feeding should be strictly every hour, not at free times.
- If the baby is bottle-fed, a low-sugar mixture is selected for him.
- When organizing meals by the hour, a slight mistake is allowed. You can feed your baby before the scheduled time.
Children of primary and school age are assigned a low-carbohydrate diet, which has its own characteristics:
- potatoes, sour cream, egg yolks should be limited to a minimum;
- cereal porridge can be cooked once a day;
- soups can be cooked in lean broths;
- the presence of vegetables and fruit is mandatory in the daily diet.
Children's low-carb diet for diabetes mellitus is not that different from an adult's diet.
Physical activity is also very important. If a 7-year-old child suffers from chronic diseases, then sports are only possible with the permission of a doctor. What a low-carbohydrate diet should be depends on the individual characteristics of the little patient. Age, weight, state of health, type of diabetes are taken into account. A detailed diet plan is developed with the doctor, which is essential to adhere to. Parents should be aware that diabetes often does not manifest itself at an early stage. With a latent course, symptoms may be absent. And if the child has a predisposition to this disease, the diet will help prevent the exacerbation of the disease. When parents have diabetes, their children's diet needs special control.